Monday, 11 August 2014

How Does The Human Brain Actually Work?

Welcome back my fellow learners. Today we are going to learn about one of the best and complex computers in the whole world, the human brain.

The human brain performs an amazing amount of tasks including:

Controlling a bodies temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, and even breathing.

It absorbs and incredible amount of information on the world around, this is done by your five senses, sight, sound, smell, taste and touch.

It controls all your physical movement such as walking, talking, standing or sitting.

It sends information even in sleep, which how dreams happen, and also controls your reason and emotions.

Each of these tasks are coordinated, controlled and regulated by something which is no bigger than a small cauliflower.

Your brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves are complex, and will process information via your central nervous system. And together they will regulate all conscious and unconscious parts of your life. A scientific study on the brain and nervous system is known as neuroscience.

Your brain has around 100 billion nerve cells, also referred to as neurons. These have the ability to collate and transmit electrochemical signals, similar to the gates and wires found in computers.

Neurons have the same characteristics and make-up as other cells, however, the electrochemical lets them send signals over long distances.

Neurons have three parts, cell body or soma. This part has all of the required components of the cell, like the nucleus, containing DNA, endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes, used for making proteins, and mitochondria, for creating energy. Should the cell body die, the neuron does also.

Axon, this cell takes the electrochemical message along the entirety of the cell. Depending upon the kind of neuron, axons are sometimes covered with a layer of myelin sheath, similar to insulated electrical wire. Myelin is a composition of protein and fat, and helps to speed up the transmission of a nerve impulse down an axon. Myelinated neurons are normally located in the peripheral nerves, also known as the sensory and motor neurons, while non-myelinated neurons are located within the brain and spinal cord.

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